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Inventory of 7 common machining methods
May 25 , 2023

The form of machining varies according to the requirements of different material workpieces and products. The traditional machining methods are the cars, pliers, washing, planing, and grinding that we often hear. With the development of mechanical technology, electroplating, wire cutting, casting, forging and powder processing have also appeared in mechanical processing.

So what are the forms of mechanical processing?

1. Turning

Turning is mainly due to the rotation of the workpiece, and the workpiece is cut into the required shape by the turning tool. When the tool moves along the parallel axis of rotation, inner and outer cylindrical surfaces can be obtained. The formation of the cone surface is that the tool moves along the oblique line intersecting the axis. The surface of revolution is formed on a profiling lathe or a CNC lathe, and the tool is controlled to feed along a curve. Another kind of production of rotating curved surface is to use forming turning tool and transverse feed. In addition to processing threaded surfaces, end planes and eccentric shafts, etc., can also be processed by turning.

2. Milling

Milling mainly relies on the rotation of the tool. Milling is divided into horizontal milling and vertical milling. The plane of horizontal milling is formed by the edge on the outer surface of the milling cutter. End milling is formed by the face edge of a milling cutter. To achieve higher cutting speeds and increase productivity, the rotational speed of the milling cutter can be increased. However, due to the impact of the cutting in and out of the milling cutter teeth, the cutting process is prone to vibration, which limits the improvement of the surface quality.

3. Planing

Planing is mainly to cut the workpiece by the reciprocating linear motion of the tool. Therefore, the speed of planing is relatively low, and thus the productivity is low. However, the accuracy and surface roughness of planing are more stable than that of milling.

4. Grinding

Grinding mainly relies on the grinding wheel and abrasive tool to process the workpiece, relying on the rotation of the grinding wheel. When the grinding wheel is grinding, the abrasive grains on the grinding wheel mainly perform three functions of cutting, engraving and sliding on the surface of the workpiece. The abrasive grain itself is gradually blunted from sharp, which makes the cutting effect worse and the cutting force becomes larger. Therefore, after grinding for a certain period of time, it is necessary to use a diamond turning tool to dress the grinding wheel.

5. Tooth surface processing

Tooth surface processing is a new processing method, which is divided into two categories: one is the forming method, and the other is the generating method. The forming method mainly uses ordinary milling machines for processing, and the cutter is a forming milling cutter, which requires two simple forming movements of the rotary motion and the linear movement of the cutter. The commonly used machine tools for machining tooth surfaces by generating method are gear hobbing machines and gear shaping machines.

6. Complex curved surface processing

For the processing of complex curved surfaces, CNC machine tools come in handy. The cutting process of three-dimensional curved surface mainly adopts the methods of profiling milling and CNC milling or special processing methods. Copy milling must have a prototype as a model. During processing, the profiling head of the ball head always touches the prototype surface with a certain pressure. The movement of the profiling head is transformed into inductance, and the processing is enlarged to control the movement of the three axes of the milling machine, forming the trajectory of the cutter head along the curved surface. The milling cutter mostly adopts a ball end milling cutter with the same radius as the profiling head. The emergence of numerical control technology provides a more effective method for surface processing.

7. Special processing

Special processing is a mechanical processing method that is different from traditional cutting processing. Special processing can use physical (electricity, sound, light, heat, magnetism), chemical or electrochemical methods to process the workpiece material, so that the workpiece becomes the shape we need. .

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